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The academic from the U. de Chile gave details of a project whose main objective is to contribute to the improvement of the preparation to teach mathematics of the future teachers of basic education.

In the Pentagon Hall the conference "Development of Texts for Teacher Training: the Experience of the FONDEF REFIP Project" was held, dictated by Dr. Salomé Martínez, an academic from the Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences of the University of Chile. The activity organized by the Faculty of Humanities of the ULS and framed in the XXXIII institutional anniversary, was attended by the academic vice-rector, Dr. Jorge Catalán, the dean of the Faculty of Humanities, Dr. María Zúñiga, university authorities, directors, academics and a large number of students at the University.

The initiative, which is already being finalized, consisted in the development of material and support resources for the training of teachers of Basic Education in Mathematics. The process of creation of this material, in charge of a team of disciplinary experts and in pedagogy of Mathematics, contemplated as stages: the development of texts for students of Pedagogy, the piloting of the material, and the creation of interactive resources and material for the trainer, evaluation of the texts and their production.

dra salome 2The texts - commented Dr. Martinez - are validated through pilot experiences at 16 universities in the country in which around 70 trainers and 5 a thousand students participated. In addition, they are aligned to the guiding standards for graduates of Pedagogy in Basic Education and tools were used to measure their impact and raise information on issues that affect initial teacher training. They were also supplemented with material for the trainer that incorporates the experiences that emerged in the pilots, and were evaluated by experts.
The lecturer explained that in its preparation interviews were conducted with academics, students, classroom teachers and advisory committee to decide the attributes. Similarly, he explained that the texts address the dimensions of the standards that cross the axes (know the mathematics to teach and know how to teach mathematics) and that favor the integration of disciplinary and pedagogical knowledge. "Its contents are consistent with the school curriculum and the focus is mathematical knowledge to teach, which includes mathematical knowledge and pedagogical knowledge of mathematics," he said.

Complementary research

The teacher from the U. de Chile explained that the project allowed to carry out research related to the relevant psychosocial phenomena for the initial teacher training. Pedagogy students who participated in the piloting of the texts were given voluntary on-line surveys about beliefs about Mathematics and also about mathematical anxiety (fear of Mathematics that usually derives from unpleasant experiences) and expectation. teacher.

Regarding mathematical anxiety, he mentioned that through the application of the survey "we realized that there are three main and reasonable factors: anxiety towards tests, anxiety towards numerical operations and anxiety towards Mathematics classes". He added that in the group of students with high mathematical anxiety, there are many with mention, that is, "taking the mathematical mention is not a guarantee that the student does not have mathematical anxiety," he said.

In addition, he indicated that mathematical anxiety affects the beliefs of mathematics. '' We saw that students with greater mathematical anxiety are more likely to believe that mathematics is a fixed skill (...) then it is very important to address mathematical anxiety, '' said the academic.

Regarding the biases in the formation of expectations, he pointed out that the study carried out with the future teachers, showed that in the cases raised by students with problems in Mathematics there are no significant effects on the formation of opinion about the personal characteristics of the students, nor the socio-economic level, nor gender makes them give more positive characteristics to some students than others, "said the expert, adding that there are significant effects of student sex and mathematical anxiety of the future teacher, since men receive expectations Academics higher than women and future teachers with higher mathematical anxiety deliver lower expectations. In addition, future teachers with greater mathematical anxiety are more predisposed to send students with problems to special classes.

Regarding the cases raised with problems in Language, he said that it was observed that there is a significant effect of sex and socioeconomic level on the personal characteristics of the students. Children with lower socioeconomic status and who have language problems receive lower evaluations of personal characteristics. And there are significant effects only for the socioeconomic level with respect to teaching expectations, the students of lower socioeconomic level receive lower expectations of their subsequent performance and there are no significant effects in the allocation of support measures in the class.

Finally, the Dean of the Faculty of Humanities, Dr. María Zúñiga, thanked the presence of Dr. Salomé Martínez and the delivery of the texts of Numbers, Geometry, Algebra, and Data and Chance, together with highlighting the invitation made by the to the teachers so that they can carry out research based on the practice.